The Aboriginal Australia

The Aboriginal Australia

An aborigine is a first inhabitant of a country. it comes from two Latin words ab origine it means from the beginning.  In Australia there is no widely accepted name for aborigines, they are called aboriginals.  There are a lot of traditions, customs, cultures, and special characteristics from aboriginal people.  This essay will describe firstly the aboriginal art, secondly the aboriginal houses and food, as well as a comparison between the aboriginal food and shelter in the past with in the present day, and finally discussion about the problem of health issues of aboriginal people in Australia.

Art was an essential part of aboriginal life which permeated every aspect, both ceremonial and secular.  Roberts (2000) explained, “They are always part of the land and nature as we are. Our connection to all things natural is spiritual” (para.5).  The art was an expression of deeply held religious beliefs the record of gossip and hunting.

Long time ago, body painting used ancestral design was the most important part of a ceremonies.  While, the most commonly used symbol of body painting are relatively simple, aboriginal people used in detail combinations to tell more stories. For example: a single wavy line shows where a river flows, parallel wavy lines symbolise a path, a kind of U-shaped sticks represents a woman, a straight sticks is a man, concentric circles mean there was a campsite or a meeting place, dots show rain or a lots of ants.

Similar like art, the aboriginal people believed that the ancestral providing all the appropriate created the land and necessary resources needed to support them in their semi-nomadic life style.  Hodge (2005) stated,”For Aboriginal people, life is linked to the seasons” (p.8), therefore they were built many different structure suited to their environment.  Definitely, they built a wide variety of shelters that varied with the seasons. For example, Wind Break, usually they use to provide protection from sun during the day.  It is also protection from breezes at night.  These windbreaks were the main form of shelter across the deserts territorities.  Also, they built temporary domed huts with grass roofs when the weather turned wet.  Some times, they can build robust domed houses, made of a hard wooden frame with a turf covering, to keep out the wet and the cold.

For necessity, their people lived by hunting and gathering various wild foods. Hodge (2005) stated,”Tools crafted with heat were invented for hunting” (p.9).  In addition, a man was hunted food by spears, clubs throwing sticks or boomerang, and the women used digging sticks and dishes for gathering food.  Recently non-Aboriginal people too have started to discover these fruits and vegetables.

In the past, the functions of shelter for aboriginal people are fundamentally similar with house after colonisation.  Neverthless, they used different types of material for structure.  Earlier, they using bough and branches for timber frames covered with bark and hides for cladding as a material of shelter.  They also used a stones structures such as a caves and natural shelter.  Whereas, numerous examples of stones structures can be seen in the present day.  Wooden structures are more fragile and survive only in very dry sheltered in land area.

Furthermore, their people lived by hunting and gathering various wild foods before European settlement.  In contrast with the present day, there are any a lot of supermarkets have built for the aboriginal people.

Although, in the present day the aboriginal people have lived in urban areas and they can gather some foods at the supermarkets, Neverthless they have a higher rate of ill health. In the past, the diets were rich in nutrients and low in fat.  Modern urban diets tend to be high in fat and sugar, but low in nutrition. High fat, low fibre diets have been linked to a number of disorders including obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

In conclussion, it is clear that the aboriginal Australia made art with ancestral design, it is also as a symbol that is connected with the spiritual, sorcery, and magic. In addition, it was the important parts of the ceremonies. They also believe the land, house, and food has been created by the ancestral.  Although the houses and food are strikingly differences between before European settlement and in the present day.

Reference List

Robyn H., (2005). Aboriginal Australia (p.8). Carlton, Victoria: Echidna books

Silas R., (2000). Dreaming and the Dreamtime (p.5). Retrieved August 24, 2009, from http://www.aboriginalartonline.com/culture/dreaming.php

Stem Cells

Most countries have a wide range of technology in the field of medicine.  Many treatments were created for tackling major diseases problems.  One of them is the research of stem cell, which have the capacity for prolonged self-renewal and can produced at least one type of highly differentiated or specialized descendant (Holland, Lebacqz, and Zoloth, 2001, p.xvii). However, research and development of stem cells become the most controversial issue in the current century.  Ethically and legally, it is proven that stem cells have brought negative effects for many people regards the use of stem cells means killing people.  Also, the expensive cost of stem cell therapy can be memorable injustice to poor people because only rich people can use this treatment method.  Therefore, the stem cell research and development should not be continued.  There are several reasons to support this argument, such as stem cell treatment is in a big contradictory with religions because of the process of freezing embryos of these treatment can cause death of embryonic stem cells, as well as the costs required to process this treatment is very expensive.

First, research and development of stem cell is a controversy, particularly embryonic stem cells.  Although the process has the potency to produce clinical benefits are very large and more detailed knowledge about human development, our society is divided over how to show the proper level of respect to human embryos and cadaveric fetal tissue, which currently are the source of these cells.  However, many people have the view that human embryos deserve respect as a form of human life.  Caroline Chisholm Centre justified the reason that “therefore every proposed technology or therapeutic procedures involving the destruction of human embryos should be banned altogether,” (as cited in Smith, p. 10).  In addition, Holland et al. (2001) mentioned that “many people believe that the embryo is fully human and therefore should not be killed” (p.xix).  Therefore, embryos generated by couples should not be used as stem cell research material because the process of freezing embryos can cause death of the embryo.  Moreover, stem cell research is contrary to religions, especially Roman Catholicism.  The Bible says that God forbids any person to kill each other (Exodus 20: 13, Good News Bible Today’s English version). Although the use of embryos in stem cell research is used to help others. Thus, the technology of stem cell therapy is very contrast to the commandments of God and against the rights of human life. Therefore, research and development of stem cells are being debated in the religious aspect.

Another reason is that the stem cell technology is very expensive.  Consequently, this method is available only for wealthy country with people who have better financial condition.  Therefore, this therapy will exacerbate inequalities in health care between the rich and the poor, and could be considered injustice.  Although scientists have tried to create a strategy to reduce budget costs by using a simple and efficient medical techniques, the required fees are still very high (Wertheim, 2002).  Accordingly, not everyone can use the benefits of this treatment method because of the costs required stem cell therapy is very expensive, as a result of stem cell therapy may be used only by people they have a better financial.  In addition, these conditions would be unbeneficial for patients who are economically poor and would lead to social inequality.  By reason of the people from among the poor may not be able to handle major disease problems with this method.

In conclusion, the ethics and legal issues illustrate that many negative effects are resulting from stem cell treatment.  Moreover, contradictory to religious aspect is one of the reasons for people to stop this research because the processes of stem cell treatment such as freezing embryo can kill the embryo and it is opposing the religious aspect.  Also, the costs of stem cell treatment is not cheap, that the advantage is only available in developed countries and the only people who have better finances can use this therapy to treat a variety of major diseases.  This can cause social gap between the rich and the poor.  Therefore, the stem cell research and development conducted by scientists are not allowed to continue.

Reference List

Smith, S (2002). Human cloning and stem cell research. retrieved from : http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/WEB_FEED/PHWebContent.nsf/PHPages/LibraryPublications

Good News Bible today English version. (2007). the ten commandments (Exod. 20 : 13). Philippine : Philippine bible society

Holland, S., Lebacqz  K., & Zoloth, L. (2001). The human science, ethics, embryonic and stem cell public policy debate. The United State of America : Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Wertheim, M. (2002). Stemming the Tide : Clones, Stem cells, & Future of Medicine. Retrieved from : http://www.slv.vic.gov.au/programs/ltf/lectures/rbl/2002/wertheim.html

My English is not perfect but improving

This experience made me thankful to God that “I could feel to continuing my education in Australia”. I am still remember when i arrived at Australia 20th June 2010, i was a quiet person. It caused of i cannot speak in English. I cannot speak clearly when talking to somebody. but when i learn and practice at Australian Catholic University, my speaking is improving even is not perfect. Also, i was difficult to catch the words when someone talking, i cannot understand what they are talking about. That is one of the reason why i cannot calling my friends who are speak in English, i scared to make a mistake while in conversation. However, while i am living in Sydney and always hear about all in English my listening was improved. Currently, I using my mobile to communicate to my friend from overseas and it is very useful to improving my listening and also last year when i finish first course, i got an opportunity to give some speech from the stage. Finally, my writing was very bad, especially in grammar. However, while i am study in Australian Catholic University then learning about writing in English, my English is improving so that i can make this note.
In this note i just want to say, i know that my English is not perfect but i am improving. Therefore, i would like to give thanks to my family members, teachers, friends, and people who are supporting me. May God bless you all.

“Violence Will Not Lead to Peace and Justice”

200px-bentoxvi-30-100520071 Holy See on Israeli-Gaza Conflict
“Violence Will Not Lead to Peace and Justice”

GENEVA, Switzerland, JAN. 12, 2009 (Zenit.org). – Here is the address Archbishop Silvano Tomasi, the Holy See’s permanent observer at the U.N. offices in Geneva, delivered last Friday regarding the situation of the conflict in the Gaza Strip.
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Mr. President,
The Delegation of the Holy See would like to express its solidarity with both the people in Gaza, who are dying and suffering because of the ongoing military assault by the Israeli Defense Forces, and the people in Sderot, Ashkelon and other Israeli cities who are living under the constant terror of rocket attacks launched by Palestinian militants from within the Gaza Strip, which have caused casualties and wounded a number of people.
The patriarchs and heads of churches of Jerusalem marked last Sunday as a day of prayer with the intention to put an end to the conflict in Gaza and to restore peace and justice in the Holy Land. It is their conviction that the continuation of bloodshed and violence will not lead to peace and justice but breed more hatred and hostility and thus a continued confrontation between the two peoples. These religious leaders call upon both parties to return to their senses and refrain from all violent acts, which only bring destruction and tragedy. They urge them instead to work to resolve their differences through peaceful and nonviolent means.
The Holy Father, Benedict XVI, underlined last Sunday that the refusal of dialogue between the parties has led to unspeakable suffering for the population in Gaza, victims of hatred and war.
Mr. President, it is evident that the warring parties are not able to exit from this vicious circle of violence without the help of the international community that should therefore fulfill its responsibilities, intervene actively to stop the bloodshed, provide access for emergency humanitarian assistance, and end all forms of confrontation. At the same time, the international community should remain engaged in removing the root causes of the conflict that can only be resolved within the framework of a lasting solution of the greater Israeli-Palestinian conflict, based on the international resolutions adopted during the years.
May I conclude with the words of Pope Benedict XVI pronounced yesterday during the annual meeting with diplomats accredited to the Holy See: “Once again I would repeat that military options are no solution and that violence, wherever it comes from and whatever form it takes, must be firmly condemned. I express my hope that, with the decisive commitment of the international community, the ceasefire in the Gaza Strip will be re-established — an indispensable condition for restoring acceptable living conditions to the population — and that negotiations for peace will resume, with the rejection of hatred, acts of provocation and the use of arms.”
Thank you Mr. President